Around 50,000 years ago, cave paintings began to appear in places like Lascaux, France. To many, this symbolized one of the first markers of the rise of 'culture' as we know it, as the 150,000 year period before did not produce many significant markers.

Homo sapiens did not begin to form civilizations until several physiological changes occurred, such as lower testosterone levels, leading to less body hair, subtler upper brows, and more slender faces. In other words, humans became - what to our standards would be considered - more feminine.

The decrease in testosterone also caused a decrease in violent behavior, as rage is a side effect of high levels of the hormone. In turn, 'social graces' emerged, or what might be considered etiquette or norms of society.

New study suggests, culture and order were the effect of homo sapiens becoming more feminine. Image 1.

Image: Cieri et al via Discover

A study done comparing bonobos to chimpanzees on two sides of the Congo River revealed that bonobos, which evolved to have more feminized features, react negatively to violence and therefore have self-domesticated. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, have high rates of violence among males, which makes sense because they share an environment with gorillas and must remain competitive.

In human society, it is possible that homo sapiens eventually weeded out the most violent members, and females chose to mate with males with less testosterone levels in order to maintain a functional order.

A study in the journal Science by researchers at UCL revealed that hunter-gatherer groups in the Philippines and the Congo shared roles amongst genders in terms of decisions of shelter and food. This in turn lead to more sex equality among groups, larger social circles, and less inbreeding, and that this could have been an evolutionary advantage.

With these clues, it is definitely possible that without the feminization of homo sapiens, culture would not have been able to develop.

Cover image: Wikipedia